Research Part 1 : General Information of Cladding System

Research Part 1

Part 1: General Information of Cladding System

A: Introduction of Cladding System

Type of Cladding:

  1. Precast Concrete
  2. Metal
  3. Curtain Wall


  1. Precast Concrete

Precast concrete is better than other materials for cladding because:

  1. its good strength-to-weight ratio
  2. its mobility
  3. its fire performance

Precast concrete is better than in situ concrete because:

  1. Speed of erection
  2. Freedom from shuttering support on site and
  3. Better quality control.


The precast concrete is cast on the moulds, which and be standardization or special-made. The standardization can :

  1. Reduce the producing and erection costs
  2. Shorten the erection time
  3. The time for detailing.


  1. Timber
  2. Steel
  3. GRP

Size of Panels

The size of the unit is affected by:

  1. Ease of manufacture
  2. Method of transportation
  3. Weight of lifting.

Method of Joints

  1. Sealants
  2. Open-drained joints
  3. Gasket joints


  1. Surface cast direct fro the mould, eg. Smooth centre, board- marked concrete, grooved or serrated, including reconstructed stone finishes;
  2. finishes in which the cement surface is removed to expose the aggregate in the concrete;
  3. applied finishes, such as tiles, stone facings and bricks;
  4. surface textured by tamping or shaping
  1. Metal

The metal cladding can be categorized in two types:

  1. Form metal
  2. Sheet Metal Panel

Form Metal

Forming of sheet metal can be carried out in four different ways:

  1. brake pressing
  2. rolling
  3. stamping
  4. deep drawing

Profile metal cladding and roof decking

According to Steel Construction Institute, cladding is the envelope of the building which normally carries no loading beyond its own weight plus the loads imposed by snow, wind and during maintenance. It is the term used when the steel sheet is exposed to the elements.

Profiled steel and aluminum sheets are available in :

  1. Sinusoidal
  2. Symmetrical trapezoidal
  3. asymmetrical trapezoidal

Method of manufacture:

  1. rolling


  1. Coating
  2. Paint
  3. For aluminum, it has its own built-in protective surface coating of aluminum oxide, which form immediately on exposure to the atmosphere.

Method of Joints

  1. Screw
  2. Nut and bolt

Sheet Metal

There are four types of sheet metal and composite panel system:

  1. rolled flat sheet panels mounted onto a supporting framework
  2. box-type panels(including proprietary panels), usually with foamed cores
  3. laminated panels
  4. rain screen panel

Composite Metal panels

Composite construction is the bonding together of layers of materials to form a rigid structure due to their different thermal and structural performance.


Some composite panels, particularly those with a foamed insulation core, failed in the past because of delamination of the outer skin from the insulation to which they were bounded.

To prevent delamination:

  1. Use light colors on the outer ski to reduce the heat gain on the skin.
  2. The size of the panel should be taken into consideration. Large panels will deflect more than small one.
  3. Fixings in the centre of panels should be avoided.
  4. The adhesive and type of insulation core should be selected to take account of stresses set up by thermal movement
  5. If the inner skin has a higher coefficient of expansion than the outer, then the effect of thermal movement will be reduced


  1. electrostatic powder coating;
  2. anodizing;
  3. thin premium paint coatings;
  4. vitreous enameling
  5. stainless steel
  1. Curtain Wall

Curtain wall may be defined as being non bearing wall, usually suspended in front of a structural frame, their own deadweight and wind loadings being transferred to the structural frame through anchorage points. Usually they consist of a rectangular grid of vertical or horizontal framing with in fill panels of glass or some other lightweight panel.

Four Type of Curtain Wall System:

  1. patent glazing;
  2. pressed or extruded metal box framing;
  3. suspended glass assemblies;
  4. silicone-bonded glazing

Metal Box Framing

There are two basic approaches to assembling a box framed curtain wall:

  1. the component parts of the system are assembled on site, with panels being offered up to a frame, also called stick system
  2. the panel system is bolted together, the panels themselves becoming the frame

Reference: Cladding of Buildings by Alan J. Brookes

Next Research: Cladding on Footbridge

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